Cellular reprogramming forcing the expression of pluripotency markers can reverse aging of cells but how molecular mechanisms through which reprogrammed cells alter aging-related cellular activities still remain largely unclear. In this study, we reprogrammed human synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using six reprogramming factors and reverted the iPSCs back to MSCs, as an approach to cell rejuvenation. Using the parental and reprogrammed MSCs as control nonrejuvenated and rejuvenated cells, respectively, for comparative analysis, we found that aging-related activities were greatly reduced in reprogrammed MSCs compared with those in their parental lines, indicating reversal of cell aging. Global transcriptome analysis revealed differences in activities of regulatory networks associated with inflammation and proliferation. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that, compared with control cells, the expression of GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6) in reprogrammed cells was attenuated, resulting in an increase in the activity of sonic hedgehog signaling and the expression level of downstream forkhead box P1 (FOXP1), in turn ameliorating cellular hallmarks of aging. Lower levels of GATA6 expression were also found in cells harvested from younger mice or lower passage cultures. Our findings suggest that GATA6 is a critical regulator increased in aged MSCs that controls the downstream sonic hedgehog signaling and FOXP1 pathway to modulate cellular senescence and aging-related activities.